Birkenhead 을 기억하라
세월호 사건을 말할 때마다 선장과 선원들이 승객을 버리고 먼저 탈출한 것을 보고
Birkenhead 사건과 그 전통에 위배된다고 말하는 것을 많이 보고 들었을 것입니다.
이 법칙을 대충 알고만 있기에는 해난 선박사고에 있어서 지켜지는 아주 중요한 원칙이기에 이 표현의 기원부터 알아보도록 하겠습니다.
사고는 발생했지만 그에 대한 대처와 판단, 민간인을 살리기 위한 중령의 선택 등이 정말 대단합니다.
그리고 그 공포감이 밀려오는 와중에 명령을 완벽하게 수행한 신병들의 정신무장도 대단합니다.
자기 보다는 다른 사람과 민간인을 우선 시하는 영국 군인들과 고위 장교가 참 부럽습니다.
참고로 HMS = Her / His Majesty’s Ship입니다.
영국 왕과 여왕의 배라는 뜻으로 영국 해군 함정을 말합니다.
HMS Birkenhead (1845)
HMS Birkenhead, also referred to as HM Troopship Birkenhead or steam frigate Birkenhead,
was one of the first iron-hulled ships (which was) built for the Royal Navy.
She was designed as a frigate, but was converted to a troopship before being commissioned.
＊ 외피가 쇠로된 초기 배들 중 하나 / be converted to : ~으로 전환되었다. (용도변경)
On 26 February 1852, while transporting troops to Algoa Bay,
she was wrecked at Danger Point near Gansbaai, 140 kilometres from Cape Town, South Africa.
＊좌초시기와 장소가 나옵니다. / 부사절 접속사 while이 남겨진 분사구문입니다.
배가 수송했으므로 현재진행형의 분사가 나왔고 뒤에 목적어까지 확인하면 끝.
There were not enough serviceable lifeboats for all the passengers,
and the soldiers famously stood firm,
thereby allowing the women and children to board the boats safely. ＊유명하게
Only 193 of the 643 people on board survived, and the soldiers´ chivalry
gave rise to the "women and children first" protocol when abandoning ship,
while the "Birkenhead drill" of Rudyard Kipling´s poem came to describe courage
in face of hopeless circumstances.
＊the soldiers’ chivalry – 병사의 기사도 / in face of - ~에 직면해서
drill – 도구의 드릴을 말하는 것이 아니라 대피훈련 등 반복적인 연습이 필요한 것을 drill이라고 하고
영문법 원서에도 exercise 라는 chapter 이름 대신에 drill이라고 하기도 한다.
키플링의 시로 인해서 절망적인 상황에서의 용기의 대명사가 Birkenhead drill 이 되었군요.
해석은 항상 주어동사 위주로
Description and history
The Birkenhead was laid down at John Laird´s shipyard at Birkenhead as the frigate HMS Vulcan,
but renamed soon after to Birkenhead after the town where she was built.
＊was laid down: 진수되다. / 뒤의 after 는 ~에 따라 혹은 따서.
She had two 564 horsepower (421 kW) steam engines from Forrester & Co that drove
a pair of 6-metre (20 ft) paddle wheels, and two masts rigged as a brig.
＊쌍돛대의 횡범선 / mast – 돛대. 즉 이 배는 2개의 스팀엔진과 2개의 돛대도 가진 배라는 뜻임.
The Birkenhead was launched on 30 December 1845 by the Marchioness of Westminster.
She undertook her maiden voyage to Plymouth in 1846,
averaging 12 knots (22 km/h) to 13 knots (24 km/h) for the journey.
＊ maiden voyage – 처녀항해 : 진수는 12월30일 / 처녀항해는 1846년
The Birkenhead was never commissioned as a frigate,
as two factors came into play while she was still under construction,
that resulted in her being converted into a troopship.
＊ come into play – 작용하다. 활동하다. / 앞에서 쓰인 be converted to 와 뜻이 같다.
Firstly, the Royal Navy´s warships were switched from paddle wheels
to more efficient propeller propulsion, following an experiment organised by the Admiralty
in 1845 in which the benefits of the propeller over the paddle wheel were dramatically demonstrated.
Secondly, the Admiralty had doubts about the effects of cannon shot against iron hulls —
in a number of trials carried out at Royal Arsenal in 1845,
at lower velocities shot made a jagged hole that was hard to plug.
＊ 추진(력) : 배 옆에 큰 패들(초기 증기선) 추진에서 현대의 프로펠러 추진으로 바뀌는 시점이 첫 이유
jagged hole : 다듬지 않은 구멍, 들쭉날쭉한 홀. / 막기 힘든
As part of her conversion to a troopship in 1851,
a forecastle and poop deck were added to the Birkenhead to increase her accommodation,
and a third mast added, to change her sail plan to a barquentine.
＊ poop deck – 선마루, 갑판 / forecastle – 상갑판 또는 선원 선실.
barquentine – 돛대가 3개 있는 범선.
Although she never served as a warship,
she was faster and more comfortable than any of the wooden sail-driven troopships of the time,
making the trip from the Cape in 37 days in October 1850. ＊목조 수송 범선
Final Voyage – 마지막 항해
In January 1852, under the command of Captain Robert Salmond RN,
the Birkenhead left Portsmouth conveying troops from ten different regiments,
including the 74th Regiment of Foot and Queen´s Royal Regiment,
to the 8th Xhosa War (then called the "Kaffir War") against the Xhosa in South Africa.
＊연대 / royal regiment - 영국 포병 연대 / 호사족과의 전쟁
On 5 January, she picked up more soldiers at Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland,
and conveyed some officers´ wives and families.
On 23 February 1852, Birkenhead docked briefly at Simonstown, near Cape Town.
Most of the women and children disembarked along with a number of sick soldiers.
＊ 잠시 정박한 곳에서 1차 하선이 있었습니다.
Nine cavalry horses, several bales of hay and 35 tons of coal were loaded for the last leg
of the voyage to Algoa Bay. ＊마지막구간
She sailed from Simon´s Bay at 06:00 on 25 February 1852 with between 630 and 643 men,
women and children aboard, the exact number being in some doubt. ＊다소 의심스럽다.
In order to make the best possible speed,
Captain Salmond decided to hug the South African coast,
setting a course that was generally within 3 miles (4.8 km) of the shore.
＊ 해안 가까이를 항해하다.
Using her paddle wheels, she maintained a steady speed of 8.5 knots (15.7 km/h).
The sea was calm and the night was clear as she left False Bay and headed east.
＊여기서는 when 으로 대체가능
Shortly before 02:00 on 26 February, while Birkenhead was travelling at a speed of 8 knots (15 km/h),
the leadsman made soundings of 12 fathoms (22 m).
＊ 측심원 – 물 깊이 재는 사람.
fathom – 깊이의 단위 / 경보를 발령했나 봅니다.
The rock lies near Danger Point (today near Gansbaai, Western Cape).
Barely submerged, it is clearly visible in rough seas, but it is not immediately apparent in calmer conditions.
＊ 물속의 숨겨진 / 추가설명 – rough sea 에서는 확실히 보이지만 보더 더 조용한 상황
즉, 파도가 안치는 때는 보이지 않는다 . 뭐가? 암초가.
Captain Salmond rushed on deck and ordered the anchor to be dropped,
the quarter-boats to be lowered, and a turn astern to be given by the engines.
＊선미구명정. / 선미가 돌려지다.
However, as the ship backed off the rock,
the sea rushed into the large hole made by the collision and the ship struck again,
buckling the plates of the forward bilge and ripping open the bulkheads.
＊forward bilge – 전방 만곡부 / ripping – 찢는, 째는 /
bulkhead – 칸막이, 벽 / buckling – 찌그러 뜨리다
Shortly, the forward compartments and the engine rooms were flooded,
and over 100 soldiers were drowned in their berths.
＊ 뱃머리에서 사고가 났으므로 앞부분과 엔진룸에 물이 차면서 병사 100명이 익사했답니다.
새벽에 일어난 사고라 침상에서 취침상태였나 봅니다.
The surviving soldiers mustered and awaited their officers´ orders. ＊ 소집되다.
Salmond ordered Colonel Seton to send men to the chain pumps;
sixty were directed to this task, sixty more were assigned to the tackles of the lifeboats,
and the rest were assembled on the poop deck in order to raise the forward part of the ship.
＊사고 와중에도 명령이 제대로 전달되고 있는 장면입니다.
chain pumps 는 펌프의 종류인데 이때는 펌프실로 해석
The women and children were placed in the ship´s cutter, which lay alongside.
＊기둥 (돛대 같은) , 하지만 여기서는 구명정을 고정시켜두는 장치를 말하는 것 같습니다.
Two other boats were manned, but one was immediately swamped and the other could not be launched
due to poor maintenance and paint on the winches, leaving only three boats available.
＊be manned – 작동되어지다. / 2대의 구명정을 쓸 수 없는 이유가 나옵니다.
The two large boats, with capacities of 150 men each, were not among them.
＊ 두 대 다 움직였으면 300명은 더 살렸을 텐데.
The surviving officers and men assembled on deck,
where Lieutenant-Colonel Seton of the 74th Foot took charge of all military personnel and
stressed the necessity of maintaining order and discipline to his officers.
＊군인들의 상황설명 : 계급은 육군중령.
As a survivor later recounted: "Almost everybody kept silent, indeed nothing was heard,
but the kicking of the horses and the orders of Salmond, all given in a clear firm voice."
Ten minutes after the first impact, the engines still turning astern,
the ship struck again beneath the engine room, tearing open her bottom.
＊ 처음은 뱃머리 10분 뒤에는 뱃바닥.
She instantly broke in two just aft of the mainmast.
＊aft – 뒤 / 두 동강 났습니다. 주 돛대 뒤에서
The funnel went over the side and the forepart of the ship sank at once.
＊ 고정원통(마스트 고정용) / 앞부분 침몰
The stern section, now crowded with men, floated for a few minutes before sinking.
Just before she sank, Salmond called out that "all those [who can swim] jump overboard,
and make for the boats".
＊만들다, 준비하다, ~로 향하다 / 배가 침몰할 때 퇴선 명령을 내림.
Colonel Seton, however, recognising that rushing the lifeboats would risk swamping them
and endangering the women and children, ordered the men to stand fast,
and only three men made the attempt.
＊ 육군 중령은 퇴선명령 거부, 병사들을 그대로 서있게 했군요. (전설의 시작)
The cavalry horses were freed and driven into the sea in the hope that they might be able to swim ashore.
The soldiers did not move, even as the ship broke up barely 20 minutes after striking the rock.
Some of the soldiers managed to swim the 2 miles (3.2 km) to shore over the next 12 hours,
often hanging on to pieces of the wreck to stay afloat, but most drowned,
died of exposure or were taken by sharks.
＊ manage to do - 하기 힘든 것을 겨우 해내다.
병사들의 대부분은 익사하거나 상어의 공격으로 죽었음.
The next morning, the schooner Lioness discovered one of the cutters,
and after saving the occupants of the second boat made her way to the scene of the disaster.
＊재난 장소로 가던 배가 다음날 구조 한 내용. 여기서 cutter 는 돛대나 기둥.
Arriving in the afternoon, she found 40 people still clinging to the rigging.
＊배의 삭구, 건물의 지붕
It was reported that of the approximately 643 people aboard, only 193 were saved.
The number of personnel aboard is in some doubt, but an estimate of 638 was published in The Times.
＊ 큰 구명보트 2대만 더 제대로 움직였어도......
It is generally thought that the survivors comprised 113 soldiers (all ranks), 6 Royal Marines,
54 seamen (all ranks), 7 women, 13 children and at least one male civilian,
but these numbers cannot be substantiated, as muster rolls and books were lost with the ship.
＊ 입증되지 못한다 / 등록부
Of the horses, eight made it safely to land, while the ninth had its leg broken while being pushed into the sea.
＊ 말은 9마리 중 8마리 생존
After Math - 여파
A number of sailors were court martialled as a result of the accident. ＊군사재판
The court was held on 8 May 1852 on board HMS Victory in Portsmouth, and attracted a great deal of interest.
However as none of the senior naval officers of the Birkenhead survived, no-one was found to be to blame.
＊ 해군 장교가 다 죽어서 책임 질 사람이 없음
Captain Edward WC Wright of the 91st Argyllshire Regiment told the court martial:
육군 대위의 진술
The order and regularity [that prevailed on board, from the moment the ship struck till
she totally disappeared,] far exceeded anything [that I had thought] could be affected by the best discipline;
＊ 명령과 규율은 훨씬 넘어섰다. 내가 생각한 최고의 훈육에 의해서 영향 받을 수 있는 어떤 것을
and it is the more to be wondered at seeing that most of the soldiers were but a short time in the service.
＊노장들이 아닌 신병들이어서 더 놀랐다.
Everyone did as he was directed and there was not a murmur or cry amongst them until the ship made her final plunge
– all received their orders and carried them out as if they were embarking instead of going to the bottom –
I never saw any embarkation conducted with so little noise or confusion.
＊마지막 침몰(선체가 두 동강 나면서 앞부분이 먼저 침몰, 뒤의 것이 나중에 침몰) / embarkation – 승선, 탑승. 그 어떤 승선과정 보다 더 침착했다는 것을 말하고 싶어합니다.
Legacy – 유산
The sinking of the Birkenhead is the earliest maritime disaster evacuation during which the concept of "women and children first" is known to have been applied.
＊ 아이와 여성 먼저가 최초로 적용된 사례라고 합니다.
"Women and children first" subsequently became a standard meme in relation to the evacuation of sinking ships, both in fiction and in real life. ＊표준
The synonymous "Birkenhead drill" became an exemplar of courageous behaviour in hopeless circumstances,
and appeared in Rudyard Kipling´s 1893 tribute to the Royal Marines, "Soldier an´ Sailor Too":
＊ 동의어, 여기서는 Birkenhead drill 이라는 말은 으로 해석하면 좋다. / tribute - 헌정 / 키플링의 헌정 시도 나왔습니다.